Viperidae

Macrovipera schweizeri (Werner, 1935) - Milos Viper 

Adult. May 2006, Milos, Western Cyclades, GR
Adult. May 2006, Milos, Western Cyclades, GR
Juvenile. May 2006, Milos, Western Cyclades, GR
Juvenile. May 2006, Milos, Western Cyclades, GR
No large scales on top of the head, supraocular divided
No large scales on top of the head, supraocular divided

Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849) - Ottoman Viper

Adult. May 2004, Loutros, Thrace, GR
Adult. May 2004, Loutros, Thrace, GR
Large supraocular scale
Large supraocular scale
Juvenile. May 2004, Avantas, Thrace, GR
Juvenile. May 2004, Avantas, Thrace, GR
Juvenile. May 2004, Avantas, Thrace, GR
Juvenile. May 2004, Avantas, Thrace, GR

Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) - Nose-horned Viper

Nominate subsp. April 2008, Ada Island, ME
Nominate subsp. April 2008, Ada Island, ME
Nominate subsp. April 2008, Ada Island, ME
Nominate subsp. April 2008, Ada Island, ME
Nominate subsp. formerly k.a. V. a. gregorwallneri. July 2010, Arnoldstein, Kärnten, AT
Nominate subsp. formerly k.a. V. a. gregorwallneri. July 2010, Arnoldstein, Kärnten, AT
Reduced head pattern
Reduced head pattern
V. a. meridionalis. October 2006, Kardamyli, Peloponnese, GR
V. a. meridionalis. October 2006, Kardamyli, Peloponnese, GR
V. a. meridionalis. June 2006, Keratea, Attica, GR
V. a. meridionalis. June 2006, Keratea, Attica, GR
Broad, large supraocular scale, no other large scales on top of the head.
Broad, large supraocular scale, no other large scales on top of the head.
V. a. montandoni female. May 2007, Babadag Forest, Dobruja, RO
V. a. montandoni female. May 2007, Babadag Forest, Dobruja, RO
V. a. montandoni male. May 2007, Babadag Forest, Dobruja, RO
V. a. montandoni male. May 2007, Babadag Forest, Dobruja, RO
V. a. montandoni. May 2004, near Mikri Prespa, Macedonia, GR
V. a. montandoni. May 2004, near Mikri Prespa, Macedonia, GR

Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Asp Viper

Nominate subsp. August 2006, Mécrin, dept. Meuse, FR
Nominate subsp. August 2006, Mécrin, dept. Meuse, FR
Nominate subsp. uniformly coloured. August 2006, Mécrin, dept. Meuse, FR
Nominate subsp. uniformly coloured. August 2006, Mécrin, dept. Meuse, FR
Nominate subsp. June 2002, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
Nominate subsp. June 2002, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
High rostral scale. April 2012, Valdelateja, Castilia Leon, ES
High rostral scale. April 2012, Valdelateja, Castilia Leon, ES
Several larger scales on top of the head
Several larger scales on top of the head
V. a. 'atra'. July 2016, Campello Monti, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT
V. a. 'atra'. July 2016, Campello Monti, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT
Melanistic individuals very common in V. a. 'atra'. July 2016, Boltigen, Bern, CH
Melanistic individuals very common in V. a. 'atra'. July 2016, Boltigen, Bern, CH
V. a. 'atra', often heavily marked. July 2016, Boltigen, Bern, CH
V. a. 'atra', often heavily marked. July 2016, Boltigen, Bern, CH
V. a. hugyi. April 2010,  Mongiana, Calabria, IT
V. a. hugyi. April 2010, Mongiana, Calabria, IT
Upturned snout, two rows subocular scales
Upturned snout, two rows subocular scales
V. a. zinnikeri. July 2004, Lac d'Orédon, dept. Hautes-Pyrenées, FR
V. a. zinnikeri. July 2004, Lac d'Orédon, dept. Hautes-Pyrenées, FR
Second row of suboculars incomplete, common in V.a.zinnikeri.
Second row of suboculars incomplete, common in V.a.zinnikeri.

Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Adder

Nominate subsp. male. April 2007, Romedenne, BE
Nominate subsp. male. April 2007, Romedenne, BE
Nominate subsp. female. May 2011, Romedenne, BE
Nominate subsp. female. May 2011, Romedenne, BE
Large scales on top of the head, two apical scales touching rostral scale
Large scales on top of the head, two apical scales touching rostral scale
Adult V. b. nikolskii. May 2007, Barnova forest, Iasi, RO
Adult V. b. nikolskii. May 2007, Barnova forest, Iasi, RO
Black pigmentation in the eye, supralabials partially white, single row of suboculars
Black pigmentation in the eye, supralabials partially white, single row of suboculars
V. b. bosniensis female. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
V. b. bosniensis female. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
V. b. bosniensis male. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
V. b. bosniensis male. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
Double row of subocular scales common in V. b. bosniensis
Double row of subocular scales common in V. b. bosniensis
V. b. walser often with dark transverse bars on the back. July 2016, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT
V. b. walser often with dark transverse bars on the back. July 2016, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT
Often incomplete second row of suboculars in V. b. walser. July 2016, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT
Often incomplete second row of suboculars in V. b. walser. July 2016, Valstrona, Piemonte, IT

Vipera graeca Nilson and Andrén, 1988 - Greek Meadow Viper

May 2004, Pindos Mountains, Ipiros, GR
May 2004, Pindos Mountains, Ipiros, GR
Nostril in the lower half of nasal scale
Nostril in the lower half of nasal scale
Large scales on top of the head
Large scales on top of the head

Vipera latastei (Boscá, 1878) - Lataste's Viper

Nominate subsp. September 2005, Sierra de Gredos, Castilla la Vieja, ES
Nominate subsp. September 2005, Sierra de Gredos, Castilla la Vieja, ES
Nominate subsp. April 2012, Burgos, Castilia Leon, ES
Nominate subsp. April 2012, Burgos, Castilia Leon, ES
Nominate subsp. April 2012, Burgos, Castilia Leon, ES
Nominate subsp. April 2012, Burgos, Castilia Leon, ES
Distinct horn on the snout
Distinct horn on the snout
V. l. gaditana. April 2006, Cota Doñana, Andalusia, ES
V. l. gaditana. April 2006, Cota Doñana, Andalusia, ES
V. l. gaditana. April 2006, Cota Doñana, Andalusia, ES
V. l. gaditana. April 2006, Cota Doñana, Andalusia, ES
Horn on the snout usually more developped than nominate subsp.
Horn on the snout usually more developped than nominate subsp.

Vipera seoanei (Lataste, 1879) - Seoane's Viper

Nominate subsp. melanistic individual. September 2000, Lamas de Mouro, Melgaço, PT
Nominate subsp. melanistic individual. September 2000, Lamas de Mouro, Melgaço, PT
Nominate subsp. Bilineata morph. July 2004, Iraty forest, dept. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, FR
Nominate subsp. Bilineata morph. July 2004, Iraty forest, dept. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, FR
May 2012, Iraty forest, dept. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, FR
May 2012, Iraty forest, dept. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, FR
Snout not upturned
Snout not upturned

Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte, 1835) - Meadow Viper

Nominate subsp. July 2006, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
Nominate subsp. July 2006, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
Nominate subsp. July 2006, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
Nominate subsp. July 2006, near Mont Ventoux, dept. Vaucluse, FR
Large scales on top of the head, one apical touching rostral scale
Large scales on top of the head, one apical touching rostral scale
V. u. macrops. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
V. u. macrops. May 2008, Biogradska Gora, ME
V. u. moldavica. May 2002, Grindul  Letea, Danube Delta, RO
V. u. moldavica. May 2002, Grindul Letea, Danube Delta, RO
V. u. moldavica. May 2007, Grindul Saraturile, Danube Delta, RO
V. u. moldavica. May 2007, Grindul Saraturile, Danube Delta, RO
V. u. moldavica. May 2007, Valea lui David, Iasi, RO
V. u. moldavica. May 2007, Valea lui David, Iasi, RO